CARLOS GONZALEZ. “Certain types of diet reduces the risk of cancer”

Wednesday March 11, 2015
There is overwhelming evidence that certain types of diet reduces the risk of cancer” is the title of the interview that “La Palma Now” was published with Carlos González. This epidemiologist, Unit of Nutrition and Cancer Catalan Institute Oncology is the most prestigious Spanish investigator in studies linking food and tumors. Has been the coordinator of the EPIC project for Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) which has lasted 15 years by more than half a million people in ten European countries. It is an interview with Esther R. Medina for the newspaper “La Palma now.”
Dr. Carlos Garcia is the most prestigious Spanish investigator in studies of diet and cancer. -You Ensures that in cancer prevention, diet matters. Yes, diet does matter. There is overwhelming evidence to prove it. Without a doubt.

-The Food, along with other factors (environmental, metabolic and genetic susceptibility) may favor or prevent the onset of tumors.

Exactly. Cancer is a multicausal disease, ie, there is no single factor that occurs. Say there are some exceptions, for example, pleural mesothelioma, in which exposure to asbestos is, by far, the only identified as a causal factor, but there is always a combination of factors, among them is the diet.When we speak of tumors such as colorectal or gastric besides food also has a role alcohol, snuff and obesity. There is always a wide range of factors.

¿Las EAT MUCH FRUIT fruits and vegetables are the most important food group protection against this disease?

Yes, there is very clear evidence that fruits and vegetables provide a number -polifenoles- antioxidant compounds that are important in cancer prevention. What happens is that what is currently seen is reduced to 30, 40 or 50 years ago effect. This does not mean that fruits and vegetables are less important today than in the past, but people consume more fruits and vegetables and therefore show the differences between those who consume and consume no more difficult for a professional. In epidemiology always make a contrast between those exposed and those not. If everyone is exposed, the effect is not observed.

-So There is advisable to eat dietary fiber. There’s an undeniable evidence that dietary fiber reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. That is already accepted in the international scientific community.

-Are ‘Miracle’ foods against cancer? No, miracles there are none. In the world of nutrition there mountebanks who, from a study suggest that there may be food or compounds with miraculous effects but no, there are no miracles.

‘Not cruciferous (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower etc., )?

-Thecruciferous have a beneficial compounds called glucosinolates, but comparatively, there is a plant that have more effect than others, in general. So please eat a significant amount of fruits and vegetables different because some have more effect on some tumors and others on others. What is important is a healthy and varied diet.

 -¿Las red meats and sausages are potentially carcinogenic?

-On These foods there is also an incontrovertible evidence, is that red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer and probably -ofdistally gastric and esophageal portion.The same goes preserved meats. In this regard, it is important to note that not advise completely suppress the consumption of red meat, because they provide iron, vitamins and compounds from the point of view of nutrition, are favorable. But you have to reduce the amount of intake to an average, roughly, 70 grams daily, which represent about 500 grams a week. In the Spanish diet we are seeing an average intake of about 250 grams per day per person, which represents being multiplied by three or four recommended.

Is there consensus on the consumption of milk? -The Dairy foods have been controversial because, in relation to cancer, there is a pretty solid evidence that can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but on the other hand, there is also consistent evidence which demonstrate that may increase the risk of prostate cancer. In women, this would not be a problem, but in men, a high dairy intake may reduce the risk of a tumor but increase the other. Therefore, there is no clear policy consensus recommendation. But it does suggest a moderate intake of dairy products, mainly with little desnatada–milk fat and salt.

-The 90% of tumors is triggered by external causes, and only between 5% and 10% is hereditary.

When we talked we mean hereditary mutations that are passed high and have what we call a ‘high penetrance’. Ie an inherited mutation that effect leads to a very high risk of developing a cancer. For example, in the breast tumor, women with a mutation of BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 genes have a high likelihood of having cancer, or the descendants but, on the other hand, genetic susceptibility is inherited, although this, by itself, does not generate a tumor; ie whether environmental factors play no role, no cancer.

-If cancer in a high rate is associated with environmental factors, can be prevented if these factors change?

When we talk about environmental factors, we do Broadly, because sometimes spoken in reference only to air pollution.Environmental Factor is what is not hereditary. And among these environmental factors, the most important is the role of lifestyle: food, consumption of snuff, alcohol, physical activity, obesity, cancer-the cervical infections are caused by viruses and liver papilloma virus hepatitis- or the solar radiation which cause skin cancer. That 90% is mainly associated with such exposures.

THE CHANGES -The variations in the incidence of this disease from one region to another is due, therefore, to dietary and environmental causes.

Yes, of course. It is so. There is clear evidence in the immigrant population. For example, in Iran breast cancer and colorectal has a very low incidence, but when that Iranian population settles in Canada, after many years increases -in them or their descendants prevalence of colorectal cancer and breast similar to Canadian rates. And what has changed in this population in 20 or 30 years are not the genes themselves, which are changed in 200 or 300 years but the lifestyle.

-The Obesity is an important risk factor.

-Fully Shown as one of the most important factors. Probably 15% of cancers are associated with obesity.

Are they reliable all dietary recommendations made?

There are many economic interests, because any recommendation may affect sectors of the economy, producers, etc. In relation to obesity, the most important cause is the consumption of Coca-Cola and gas high in sugar.

‘And it is true that sugar feeds cancer cells?

Yes, it’s true. Sugar need to consume as little as possible, and if consumed, must be black, unrefined.

What is your opinion on the intake of vitamin supplements?

Not advised for anything.Antioxidants there in a very clear evidence that instead of producing a benefit produce a risk. When a person with a normal level of antioxidants in the diet eat more antioxidant supplements, rather than act as antioxidants do as oxidants.

-¿También Probiotics pose a risk?

It’s different because fall within what they can be functional foods and could improve the intestinal flora, but in relation to cancer no evidence. They are likely to have effects in other chronic diseases.

‘What lifestyle recommended to prevent cancer?

-Remove The snuff, alcohol moderately, physical activity every day, avoid overweight and obesity and to diet Mediterranean.

Do you think that in the near future be able to find a treatment that will cure all tumors?

No, first because the cancer as such as well not exist.The cancer are 20 different diseases affecting different organs of different and associated mechanisms also different factors. You can find perhaps the healing of a tumor, but here are also professional interests that sell smoke. From 15 to 20 years we have been talking about the personalized genetic medicine, which they say will cure cancer, but advances have been made ​​in this regard are, unfortunately, very few. The best way to reduce cancer risk is to affect lifestyle, but as this is not patented, then say that laboratories have no interest in it.

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